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Full text of "A Monograph of the British Spongidae"

\jP Biodiversity 
fe^HeriUge 

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org 



A monograph of the British Spongiadae. By J. S. Bowerbank. 

London, Pub. for the Ray society by R. Hardwicke, 1864-82. 
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/2038 



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THE PUBLICATION OF ^VORKS ON 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION ONE GUINEA. 



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Haliclioiadria TiioTrLpsojnil — S. Isodictya, siTii.ple:x:6. «5-PLL.fig.l8. 
HalicliOTLdria. incrustaii^^ 7 — 12 . Ti. candLda 13 ~"16 . IL 11:^6911103^8 17- 21 



WLeJo^ i4l(iouLS d^t et Kth. 



TV:West&C'?Lw,p 



107 



PLATE XLIV. 

Halichondria TnoMPSONi, Bowerhanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 243, ' Mon. Brit. Spongi 




Figs. 1 and 2. — Represent tlie largest two of 



three specimens obtained by tlie Eev. A. M. Norman 
at Jersey, 1867. Tlie specimens were preserved in 
spirit ; but they are figured in the dried state, of the 
natural size. The original of No. 1 is in the cabinet 



o 



of Mr. Norman; that of No. 2 he kindly presented 
to me. The third specimen in the possession of Mr. 
Norman is less in size than the one represented by 

No, 2. 



through my friend Mr. Robert P 




of Belfast for the loan of the type- 
specimen, that it might be figured, but I regret to 




ay that it could not be 

3. — One of the skeleton s|3icula. X 150 




Fig. 4. — A tension spiculum, from the interstitial 
membranes. X 150 linear. 




One of the bidcntate, equi- 




spicula, from the dermal membrane. 



X 530 linear. 




IsoDiCTYA SIMPLEX, Bowevhanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 294, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 

Kg. 6.-Represents the largest specimens of 
species that I have seen in the condition in which it 
came from the sea, having been preserved in spirit 
by the Rev. A. M. Norman, who dredged it in 
Strangford Lough, Ireland, October 8th, 1869. It 
is attached to a small pebble (a), and some minute 
i are partly enveloped in its substance at (&). 




Natural size. Specimen in the cabinet of the Rev 
A. M. Norman. 



108 PLATE XLIV. 




other siDecImens of this species of less size 





were obtained from Strangford Lougli when the one 
represented bj figure 6 was taken by Mr. Norman. 
For the figure of the spicuhun of this 



must refer the reader to Plate L, fio* 



&• 





present volume. 

The figure of Isodictya simplex was drawn on 
stone and printed through an error of mine, instead 
of that of Halichondria simplex, and the mistake was not 
discovered until it was too late to remedy it otherwise 
than has been done above. 



Halichondeia iNCPaisTANs, Johnston. 

m 

Vol. ii, p. 249, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 

Fig. 7. — Represents a .fine specimen of the species 
dredged on the Diamond Trawling Ground, ofi" 
Hastings. Natural size. 

Fig. 8. — One of the cylindrical mucronate spicula of 
the dermal fasciculi. X 250 linear. 

There is a considerable variation in the amount of 
the development of the mucronate character in these 
spicula ; in some it is scarcely apparent, while in others 
it is very distinctly pr 




Fio;. 9. — A laroe contort, 





spiculum, from the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fig. 10. — One of the small, simple, bihamate, 
retentive spicula from the dermal membrane. X 530 
linear. 

The small, simple, bihamate spiculum is not an 

one of the larger description, but a form 
separate and distinct from it ; and it appears to be 




quite as numerous as the larger ones. 



Fig. 11. — A bidentate, equi-anchorate spiculum, 
from the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fig. 12. — An average-sized skeleton spiculum of the 
normal acuate form. X 250 linear. 



I have never succeeded in finding this sponge on the 



PLATE XLIV. 109 



rocks between high and low water mark, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hastings, although it is by no means un- 



common m such localities at Tenby. It is of very 



common occurrence among the sjoonges brought in 
from the Diamond Ground, by the Hastings trawlers, 
and some of the specimens exceed the figured one in 



size. 



From a more extensive acquaintance with this species 



it appears almost to rival Halichondria panicea in the 
variety of forms it assumes. I have it parasitical on 
small branching fuci, embracing the stem, and forming 



with them an irregular mass, thinly coating the valves 
of Pecten opercularis, in small thick masses on the 
Tenby Rocks between tide marks, and in irregularly- 

masses, without any indications of an 
ment, having apparently been floating freely about in 
the sea. 





Halichondria Candida, BowerhanJc 

Vol. ii, p. 251, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 



Fig. 13. — Uepresents the finest and best developed 



of the species. In the cabinet of the Rev. A 
M. Norman. Natural size. 

* 

Fig. 14. — One of the dermal spicula. X 250 linear. 
Fig. 15. — A contort, bihamate, retentive spiculum, 
from the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fig. IG. — One of the skeleton spicula. X 250 




Haliohondeia iuregulaeis, Boiverbanh. 

Vol, ii, p. 251, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadae,' 

•J 

Fig. 17. — Represents the type-specimen in the dried 
state, and of the natural size. 

Fig. 18. — One of the sub-fusiformi acerate spicula, 
from the dermal membrane. X 250 linear. 




PLATE XLIV. 



Fig. 19. — A bidentate equiangulated retentive spicu- 
lum from the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fig. 20. — One of the attcnnato-acuate, basally and 



medially-spined, skeleton spicula. X 250 linear. 




Fig. 21. — An attenuato-acnate, entir 



ternal, defensive spiculum. X 250 linear. 



-8p 




m- 



Plate XLV. 




IS 



Halichondria Dicki.eil-6, H. grsaiula^taT— 13.H- scstxLdeiisl4-20. 



H. albula 21-24.H.mqpicans 25—31. HjinerLiaci 

W.Le,yi^AUou£ delethih. ( & FL.XXXIR. flCf. 14-.\ 




variaiLtia 32 - 34^ 



Ill 



PLATE XLV. 

Haliohondeia Dickiei, Bowerhanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 253, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadae.' 

Fig. 1. — Represents tlie type-specimen received from 
Dr. Dickie. Natural size. 

Fig. 2. — A mucronato- cylindrical spiciilumj from tlie 
dermal membrane. X 250 linear. 

Fig. 3. — One of the subclavate, hastate spicula, 
from the dermal membrane. X 250 Hnear. 

Fig. 4. — An acuate, entirely-spined spiculum, from 
the skeleton. X 250 linear. ] 

Fig. 5. — One of the large, bidontate, equi-anchorate, 
retentive spicnla. X 530 linear. 

Fig. 6. — A large, tridentate, equi-anchorate spiculum, 



from the inner surface of the dermal membrane. 
X 530 linear. 



i 

Halichondeia geanulata, Boiverlanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 262, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadae/ 

Fig. 7. — Kepresents the type-specimen received fr 
the late Mr. Joshua Alder. Natural size. 

Fig. 8. — One of the submucronate cyhndrical spici 
from the dermal membrane. X 250 linear. 

Fig. 9. — A large, bidontate, equi-anchorate, reteni 
spiculum, from the dermal membrane. X 530 linci 

Fi2^. 10. — A small, tridentate, equi-anchorate, 



hnear. 



piculum, from the dermal membrane. X 530 



Fig. 11. — One of the acuate, entirely and incipiently- 
spined skeleton spicula. X 250 linear. 

Figs. 12 and 13. — Two of the attenuato-acuate, 
entirely-spined, internal, defensive spicula. X 250 
inear. These spicula differ greatly in size. The two 



112 PLATE XLV. 



figured are neitlier the largest nor smallest of tlieir 
kind, but those sizes, and the intervening ones, which 
appear to be the most numerous in the sponge. 



HALiCHONcrJA SOANDENS, Boiuerbanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 259, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 



rig. 14. — Represents the type-specimen of the 



species, in the cabinet of the Rev. A. M. Norman. 
Natural size. 

r 

Eig. 15. — One of the large, fusiformi- cylindrical, 
tension spicula, from the dermal membrane. X 250 









Fig. 16. — A simple, bipocillated, anchorate spiculum, 
from the dermal membrane. X 

Fig. 17. — One of the dentato-palmate, inequi-an- 
chorate, retentive spicula, from the dermal membrane. 
X 530 linear. - - 

Fig. 18. — A bidentate, inequi-anchorate, retentive 
spiculum, from the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 



Fig. 19. — A skeleton spiculum, basally and api 
snined. X 250 linear. 




Fig. 20. — One of the short, stout, entirely-spined, 
internal, defensive spicula. X 250 linear. 



Halichondria albula, Boiverhank. 

Vol. ii, p. 268, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse,' 



Fig. 21. — Represents the type-specimen which I 



received from my late friend, Mr. Barlee. Natural 

The sponge occupies the light portion of the 
shell at a. 





g, 22. — One of the large, acuate, entirely and 
profusely spined spicula, from the dermal membrane. 
X 530 linear. 
Fiff. 23. — A skeleton spiculum. X 530 linear. 



Many of these spicula are more or less flexuous. 



X 



rLATE XLV. 113 



Fig 24. — One of the bidentate, equi-ancliorate, 
retentive spicula. X 530 linear. 



Halichondria nigricans, Bowerhanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 266, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadae.' 

g. 25. — Represents the type-specimen received 
from Mr. McAndrew. Natural size. 

Fig. 26. — One of the terminally spined, subfusiform. 




cylindrical spicula, from the dermal membrane. 
X 250 linear. 

Fig. 27. — Apalmato-inequi-anchorate spiculum, from 
the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fig. 28. — ^A dentato-inequi-anch orate spiculum, from 
the dermal membrane. X 530 linear. 

Fio"S. 29 and 30. — Two of the inequi-bipocillated 



spicula, from the interstitial membranes. X 530 

linear. 

Fig. 31. — An acuate, entirely but minutely spined, 
skeleton spiculum. X 250 linear. 



Hymeniacidon variantia, Boioerhank. 

Vol. ii, p. 174, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadfe.' 

Fig. 32. — A skeleton spiculum of Hymeniacidon 
riantia, of the normal form and of the largest size. 
123 linear. 

Fig. 33. — A smaller sized skeleton spiculum of the 
arae species, exhibiting one of the common forms of 



contortion, which prevails among the smaller sized 
skeleton spicula. X 123 linear. 

Fig. 34.— ReiDresents a small portion of the dermal 
nbrane, with its spicula in sitit, with loosely fascicu- 
minute, acuate, tension spicula, and the large 
mall bihamate retentive spicula irregularly dis- 





persed. X 320 




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Halichondria Pattersonil- 6 . H. Hyndnaani 7 — 15 . H.pulcliellal6-19. 



H.In.qalli 20-24. H. Batei 25-29. 



Vi/.LenB AidUnus d^l et Ulh. 



W.WaetSiC'^'T.m.p. 



115 



PLATE XL VI. 

Halichondria Patteesoni, Bowerhank. 

Vol. ii, p. 255, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiada3.' 

Fig. 1. — The largest specimen of tlie species that I 



have seen. It is in the cabinet of the Rev. A. M. 



Norman ; it was labelled from the Minch, 1866. 




size. 




2. — Represents three small specimens of H. 



I'lg. z. — ixepresents xuree sman specmiens oi jjl. 

Pattersoni parasitical on a small stem of a zoophyte, 






for which I am indebted to the Rev. A. ^.^. ^,v.x..,^^, 
who obtained it at the Minch in 1866. Natural size. 
Fig. 3. — One of the incipiently spincd, tension 





spicula, from the dermal membrane. X 250 linear. 

Fig. 4. — An acnate, entirely spined, skeleton spi- 
culum . X 

5. — A dentato -palm ate, inequi-anchorate, reten- 

X 530 linear. 

bidentate inequi-anchorate spiculum. 
from the interstitial membranes of the sponge, repre- 
sented by fig. 1. I did not obtain any of this form in 
the type-specimen. It was not in nearly so fine a state 
of preservation as the specimens obtained 
Norman at the Minch. X 530 linear. 






Halichondria Hyndmani, llowerdan/>: 

Vol. ii, p. 264, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadoe.' 

Fig. 7. — Represents a fine specimen of the species 
on a shell of Pecten opercularis, from the Diamond 
Ground, off Hastings, (a a) the sponge, (5) a patch of 

Dora pumicosa. Natural size. 




. 8. — Represents a fine detached mass of II. 
Hyndmani from the Diamond Grounrl. It is in a fine 
iitate of preservation, and exhibits the surface charac- 



IIG PLATE XlA'l. 



ters of the sponge m a very satisfactory manner. 
Natiu'al size. 

Fig. 9. — One of tlie semi-spinous, attennato-acuate 
skeleton spicula. X 250 linear. 



J 



Fig. 10. — An attenuato-acuate, entirely- spined, in- 
ternal, defensive spiculum. X 250 linear. 



Fig. 11. — One of the slender, cylindrical, tension 
spicula. X 250 linear. 

Fig. 12. — A bidentate, inequi-ancliorate, retentive 




spiculum, from the dermal membrane. X 530 

linear. 

Fig. 13. — A dentato-palmate, iuequi-anchorate, re- 

spiculum, from the interstitial membranes. 
X 530 linear. This form of spiculum was not ob- 
served in the specimen of the sponge first examined. 
In the specimen figured they are about equal in 
number to the bidentate spicula. . 

Figs. 14, 15. — Bipocillated anchorate, r 

, from- the interstitial membranes. X 530 
linear. These singular forms of spicula are repre- 

a larger scale from the same species of 
sponge in plate v, figs. 123 — 127, vol. i, *Mon. Brit. 
Spongiadae.' 

Since the first publication of H. Hyndmani I have 
received numerous specimens on the shells of Pecten 
opercularis, but it is only on comj)aratively a few of 







them that the sponge is developed in the massive 



state represented at a a, fig. 7. On by far the 
greater number of the shells it forms only a thin crust, 
as represented covering the remaining portions of the 
shell. 



Haliohoxdria ruLCHELLA, BoiverdcmJ'. 

Vol. ii, p. 256, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 

g. 1 6. — Represents the type-specimen in the 
cabinet of the Rev. A. M. Norman. Natural size. 
Fig. 17. — One of the subfusiformi, cylindrical, ter- 




PLATE XLVI. 



117 



miiially incipiently spinous spicula, of the dermal 

'ane. X 250 linear. 





Fig-. 18. — One of the subfnsiformi-acuate 

X 250 linear. 
Fig. 19. — A simple, biliamate, retentive spiculum, 
from tlie interstitial membranes. X 530 linear. 




Halichondria Ingalli, Bowerbanh. 

Vol. ii, p. 258, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse.' 

Fig. 20. — Represents the type-specimen in the dried 

state. Natural size. 

?irr 21. — A slender, subfusiform, cylindrical spi- 




te* 
CLiliim, from the dermal membrane. X 250 

Fig. 22. — One of the attenuato-acuatt 
spincd, skeleton spicula. X 250 linear. 

Fis". 23. — One of the malformed, bihamate 
spicula, from the dermal membrane. X 53C 

Fig. 24. — An angulated, inequi-anchorate 
spiculum, from the dermal membrane. X 



iiy 





Halichondrta BateTj Bowerbank. 

Vol. ii, p. 261, ' Mon. Brit. Spongiadse,' 

Fig. 25. — Represents the type-specimen as described 
in p. 261, voL ii. Of the natural size ; {a) is the 
sponge H. Batei, and (h) a portion of a young specimen 
of Dictyocylindrus rugosus rising above it. The 
whole of the cup of Isodictya infundibuliformis has 



not been figured, as it would have occupied too great 



an amount of space in the Plate. 

Fig. 26. — One of the obtusely pointed, acuate, ten- 
sion spicula, of the dermal membrane. X 250 linear. 

Fig. 27. — One of the stout, acuate, entirely spined, 
skeleton spicula. X 250 hnear. 

Fig. 28. — A large, bidentate, erpii-anchorate, reten- 



118 



PLATE XL VI. 




tive spiculunij from the interstitial 
linear. 

Fig. 29. — One of the small series of 



;anes. X 530 




anchor ate J 

branes. X 630 linear. 





equi- 
, of the interstitial mem- 




great comparative size of 



the spicvila of this 



little sponge is very characteristic of the species